Responding to changes in warfare and how it executes its core missions, the Army has outlined the nature of future conflicts and what must be done to win. The fundamental concept of winning is based upon the control and dominance of information across the spectrum of all military operations. This concept is an extension of the intelligence gathering and field execution exhibited in the Gulf War.
Currently, forces of the Army are not optimally designed and organized to fully support these missions. The heavy forces of today, while decisive in a variety of combat and non-combat environments, require tremendous resources to deploy quickly and sustain themselves. In contrast, light forces can strike quickly but lack survivability, lethality, and tactical mobility. Both types of forces lack capabilities that will assume increasing importance in future decades. The requirements for greater lethality, survivability, and deployability across the entire force, resulting in greater versatility and agility for full-spectrum operations, point to the need for fundamental transformation and a new vision.
For the 21st Century, the Army envisions a strategically responsive force that is dominant across the entire spectrum of operations and is responsive, deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable, and sustainable.
To achieve its vision, the Army has implemented a three-phase strategy: sustainment of the Legacy Force, development of an Interim Force, and evolution to an Objective Force, known today as FORCE XXI.
Legacy Force, Today's Army
The process of transforming the Army into the FORCE XXI will span decades. During this time, the Legacy Force will be recapitalized and selectively modernized. The objectives of this Legacy Force include the following:
Systems now being fielded, and systems that will be fielded in the near term, may not be part of the ultimate Objective Force, though they could be used for up to thirty years or longer. An advanced field artillery system and the Heavy Equipment Transport (HET) are examples. An advanced field artillery system to replace the current Palladin would restore combat overmatch in cannon artillery to the United States. Cost-effective enhancements to the HET will reduce future Operations and Support (O&S) costs.
For the immediate future and well into the mid-term, the Legacy Force of today, complemented by the Interim Force as it is fielded over the next few years, will be the primary means by which the Army fulfills its readiness responsibilities to the Nation. Beginning with the Legacy Force, followed by the introduction of new equipments to the Interim Force, the transformation to the Objective Force will eventually encompass the entire Army.
Interim Force - Army After Next (AAN)
To bridge the gap between capabilities of today and the Objective Force, the Army is fielding an Interim Force. This force will be combined arms in design and organized as a rapidly deployable, full-spectrum force. Its core qualities include operational and tactical mobility, enhanced situational understanding, combined arms integration down to and including company level, and increased dismounted strength for close combat in urban and complex terrain.
The Interim Force includes systems that will not be a part of the ultimate Objective Force, though they may be in use for an indefinite period before they are phased out of service. The primary Interim Force combat platform will be a family of Interim Armored Vehicles (IAVs), capable of deployment anywhere in the world in a combat-ready configuration. By 2010, the Army will have outfitted most of its active component divisions with these systems.
Objective Force - FORCE XXI
The Objective Force, currently being tested as FORCE XXI, is the ultimate transformation goal which will become the future force that achieves all the characteristics described in the Army Vision. Based on data gathered during a series of advanced warfighting experiments conducted at Ft. Hood, Texas, and Ft. Irwin, California, The implementation of the Objective Force requires the adoption of a new division which will still be the most lethal combat force in the world even though it will have fewer soldiers, armored vehicles and weapon systems. Many of those systems includes systems available today, as well as those planned and being developed for production in the future.
Future Combat Systems (FCS) will be the centerpiece of the Objective Force. The Objective Force concept and its enabling technologies are currently under development. Its enabling capabilities will require continued investments in science and technology. FCS is envisioned as a digitized system-of-systems land combat capability with multi-mission functionality. Its main characteristics will include:
In Fiscal Year (FY) 01 the 1st Cavalry Division began its transition to the Force XXI design. "Force XXI is the comprehensive process of the Army for modernizing and preparing for the challenges of the 21st Century. Force XXI projects our soldiers into the 21st century and provides them with the necessary doctrine and organizations, the most realistic training, and the best equipment and weapon systems that our nation can provide.
When the Division is equipped with Force XXI equipment that is fully digitized, it will create a "collaborative virtual environment" that, among other advantages, will give commanders separated by great distances the ability to communicate through various digital systems to provide situational awareness across the battlefield.
Implementation of Force XXI Concepts to the 1st Cavalry Division encompasses the following strategies or reorganization:
1. Seamless Integration -
2. Command and Control -
3. Maneuver -
4. Fire Support -
5. Mobility, Countermobility and Survivability -
6. Combat Service Support -
7. Air Defense Artillery -
8. Intelligence -
9. Communications -
10. Force Protection and Security -
The initial equipment selected for the units of the 1st Cavalry Division is tabulated below. However, note that the final configuration of the Objective Force XXI will be modified based on simulations, field exercises and analysis of the Division design In its end configuration, Force XXI equipment will be ideally suited for joint operations and will be fully compatible with the operational systems of the other services. Seamless information connectivity with the other elements of the joint force will be its primary characteristic and is essential for the success of joint operations.
|Unit Designation||Unit Type||Force XXI|
|Brigade Recon Troop||Recon||14 M1025/26 HMMWV SCOUT|
|2nd Bn, 8th Cavalry||Armored||44 M1A2 SEP MBT|
|1st Bn, 12th Cavalry||Armored||44 M1A2 SEP MBT|
|2nd Bn, 5th Cavalry||Mechanized Infantry||44 M2A3 BFVS|
|Brigade Recon Troop||Recon||14 M1025/26 HMMWV SCOUT|
|1st Bn, 8th Cavalry||Armored||44 M1A2 SEP MBT|
|2nd Bn, 12th Cavalry||Armored||44 M1A2 SEP MBT|
|1st Bn, 5th Cavalry||Mechanized Infantry||44 M2A3 BFVS|
|Brigade Recon Troop||Recon||14 M1025/26 HMMWV SCOUT|
|2nd Bn, 7th Cavalry||Mechanized Infantry||44 M2A3 BFVS|
|1st Bn, 9th Cavalry||Mechanized Infantry||44 M2A3 BFVS|
|3rd Bn, 8th Cavalry||Armored||44 M1A2 SEP MBT|
|1st Bn, 227th Avn Rgt||Attack Combat||24 AH64D LOT IV||FY03 AH64D LOT VII|
|2nd Bn, 227th Avn Rgt||Combat Support||24 UH60L|
|"B" Co, 2nd Bn, 149th Avn||Combat Support||8 UH60L||TX ARNG 49th AD|
|1st Sqdrn, 7th Cavalry||Armored & Air Cavalry||16 OH58D Kiowa|
27 M1A2 SEP MBT
43 M3A3 BFBS
6 M93A1 FOX NBCRS
|1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty||Medium Artillery||18 M109A6 Paladin (N1)||Supts 1st Bde|
|2nd Bn, 82nd Field Arty||Medium Artillery||18 M109A6 Paladin (N1)||Supts 2nd Bde|
|3rd Bn, 82nd Field Arty||Medium Artillery||18 M109A6 Paladin (N1)||Supts 3rd Bde|
|1st Bn, 21st Field Arty||Rocket Artillery||12 M270 MLRS||General Supt|
|"C" Btry, 131st Field Arty||Rocket Artillery||6 M270 MLRS||TX ARNG Unit, 49th AD|
|68th Chemical Company||NBC Reconnaissance||6 M93A1 FOX NBCRS||FY03 Deactivated|
|Engineer Brigade||FY03 Deactivated|
|8th Engineer Bn||Combat Engineer||Each Bn Eqp'd With|
21 M9 ACE (N2)
12 M60 AVLB (N3)
|Supts 3rd Bde|
|20th Engineer Bn||Combat Engineer||Supts 1st Bde|
|91st Engineer Bn||Combat Engineer||Supts 2nd Bde|
|Divisional Support (DISCOM)|
|15th Supt Battalion (FWD)||Heavy Equipment Transport (HET)|
Palletized Load System (PAL)
Forward Repair System (FRS)
Load Handling System (HEMTT_LHS)
Movement Tracking System (MTS)
|Supts 2nd Bde|
|27th Supt Battalion (MAIN)||2nd Level Supt|
|115th Supt Battalion (FWD)||Supts 1st Bde|
|215th Supt Battalion (FWD)||Supts 3rd Bde|
|615th Supt Battalion (AVN)||Supts Avn Bde|
|Material Mgm't Center|
|4th Bn, 5th ADA||Forward Air Defense||1 Sentinel AN/MPQ64|
24 M6 Linebacker
Each W/6 MUR
|13th Signal Bn||Communications||Warfighter Information Network (WIN)|
Global Broadcasting System (GBS)
AN/PSC-5 EMUT Spitfire
SMARTT Secure Terminal
Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS)
|312th Intelligence Bn||Intelligence & EW||Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (TUAV)|
Common Ground Station (CGS) AN/TSQ-179
|545 MP Company||Security & Protection||14 M1025/26 HMMWV|
29 M1114 HMMWV W/Up Armor
Because the Force XXI organizational and equipment concept will be modular in nature, it can easily tailored to the necessary force package to meet the needs of a joint force commander. This modularity will allow the generation, projection, and sustaining force packages for any type of military situations and operations.
The mission of the Army is to equip a capability based upon the achievement of a full-spectrum dominance against any potential enemy across the entire field of military operations by 2015 - 2020. Appendix "K" details the descriptions and features of the next generation weapon system replacements that have been tested and will be fielded to support the reorganization of the new 1st Cavalry Division. It is important to note that even though that each of the systems described can deliver a deadly force, they are not isolated pieces of individual equipment. Rather, they are the building blocks needed to create the integrated capabilities that are the defining capabilities of AAN and FORCE XXI.
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