Although not a native of Texas, General Hood was nevertheless considered a state hero for his connections with the "Texas Brigade and his prior service and dramatic forays in Texas while serving in the 2nd Cavalry Regiment (redesignated 10 August 1861, as the 5th Cavalry Regiment) at Ft. Mason, TX under Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee. During the construction phase, the Army purchased an additional 16,000 acres of land in Bell County for training purposes and 34,943 acres in Coryell County for a cantonment to house the Tank Destroyer Basic Replacement Training Center and an area for its extensive field training.
On 26 March 1971, a Stand Down Ceremony at Bein Hoa, marked the departure of
the 1st Cavalry Division from Vietnam. With the simple but brief ceremony
highlighted by the 1st Cavalry Division Band and the bright colors, their tour
of duty came to a close. After sixty-six months "in country" and continuously
in combat, the First Team left the 3rd Brigade (Separate) to carry on.
TRICAP, an acronym for TRIple-CAPability, was derived from combining the ground (mechanized infantry or armor) capability, airmobile infantry and air cavalry or attack helicopter forces. TRICAP I was held at Fort Hood, Texas beginning in February 1972. The purpose of TRICAP I was to investigate the effectiveness and operational employment of the TRICAP concept at battalion and company levels when conducting tactical operations in a 1979 European mid-intensity warfare environment. The exercise consisted of six phases; movement to contact, defense and delay, exploitation, elimination of penetration, rear area security and night elimination of penetration in an adjacent area.
On 26 June 1972, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry along with the 3rd Brigade
(Separate) was brought back to the United States, completing the last stage of
the "Vietnam recall" for the 1st Cavalry Division which had started over a
year earlier on 05 May 1971. On 31 July, the 2nd Battalion was inactivated at
Fort Hood, Texas. Their period of inactivation was short lived. On 20 June
1974, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment was reactivated, redesignated
2nd Battalion, (Armor), 5th Cavalry and reassigned to the 1st Cavalry
Division, Fort Hood, Texas.
The main body of the 1st Cavalry Division, at Fort Hood, under the direction of MASSTER, continued to test future concepts of mobility and flexibility on the battlefield. The tests continued for three and a half years were very demanding. It was concluded that the employment of the TRICAP concept at the battalion level appeared to have application in some tactical situations, but employment at company level appeared to be feasible only for short periods of combat and for special missions. Evaluation also indicated that air cavalry would normally be controlled above the company level. The battalion task force encountered no combat support problems directly attributable to the TRICAP concept.
On 21 February 1975, the end of TRICAP evaluations, the mission of airmobile anti-armor warfare was transferred to the 6th Cavalry Brigade (Air Combat) co-located at Fort Hood, Texas and the 1st Cavalry Division was reorganized and redesignated to become the newest Armored Division in the Army, essentially the battle configuration it retains today. On 16 September 1986, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment was relieved from the 1st Cavalry Division and assigned to the 3rd Armored Division in Germany and inactivated on 16 December. On 16 January 1987, the 2nd Battalion was reactivated and reassigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood, Texas where it has been to the present, filling out the present organization structure.
In 1980, as part of the continuous preparation for combat of the unknown enemies of the future, the division was chosen to field test the new XM-1 tank. At the same time the division shed the battle weary M551 Sheridan armored reconnaissance airborne assault vehicles for M60 tanks.
As a part of the continuous preparation, the First Team began a restructuring,
taking on the "Division '86" configuration. On the 16 June, the reorganization
included: deactivation of the 1st Battalion, 12th Cavalry Regiment and the
activation of a new helicopter unit, "A" Company, 227th Aviation Regiment
which would be later reorganized and redesignated as the 228th Aviation
Battalion on 01 Oct '83. Other changes included; increasing the authorized
sizes of the 8th Combat Engineer, 13th Signal and 15th Medical Battalions
along with the DISCOM supply and transport elements and 1st Battalion, 68th
Air Defense Artillery.
|1st Cavalry Division Headquarters - 1980|
The opening ceremonies for the new 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters Building were held in July. A modern brick, 124,000 square-foot facility replaced the original World War II structures, enabling the housing of the Division Staff under one roof. Major General William C. Chase (Retired), who commanded the Division in the final days of World War II through the occupation of Japan, participated in the ribbon cutting which was held during the 36th reunion of the Association.
In the fall of 1983, the 1st Battalion deployed with the division to Europe
for the annual REFORGER exercises. This deployment was consistent with the
contingency plans for its NATO reinforcement role. REFORGER '83 was the
largest deployment of the division since Vietnam. A real test of war equipment
repositioned stocks, REFORGER also marked the first time the exercise was lead
by the Dutch.
At Fort Hood, the division through deliberate planning, evolved into the
combat unit which would be eventually assigned a major role in the Gulf War.
Along with the constant training of personnel, equipment was updated. The
XM-1 tank, renamed the M1 Abrams, was accepted and issued, along with
the BFV (Bradley M2 Infantry) and CFV (M3 Cavalry) fighting vehicles. New
technology was fielded in the MLRS (Multiple Launched Rocket Systems) and the
AH-64 Apache helicopter with its "Hellfire" guided missile. The old reliable
Jeep bowed to the HEMTT (Heavy Expanded Multi-purpose Tactical Truck), capable
of hauling fuel, ammunition and various cargos, and the HMMWV (High Mobility
Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle, configured as troop/cargo carrier, light
armored personnel carrier, communications equipment carrier and ambulance, -
both of which proved to be invaluable in the Gulf War.
Along with the hardware technology changes, communication innovations made possible quantum leaps in command and control operations by the fielding of Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE) which, essentially cellular telephones for both fixed sites and mobile vehicles, provides secure mobile voice/data and facsimile service. The MSE is augmented by Single Channel Ground to Air Communication System (SINGARS), which provides unprecedented security using frequency hopping technology. The inventor behind this amazing technology of "Frequency Spread" was the incredible and talented actress Heddy Lamar who applied for the basic patent in 1942 and gave the US government royalty free use.All of this new equipment saw hard operational use at Fort Hood and by the deployment of brigades to the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, located in the High Mojave Desert of California. This facility encompasses 1,000 square miles for maneuver training against the best trained opposing force in the world. The mission of Fort Irwin is to provide tough, realistic combined arms training at battalion task force level using both live fire and opposing forces. To carry out this mission, the National Training Center has a computerized, live-fire complex with sophisticated targetry, a full-time opposing force, a state-of-the-art range instrumentation system that monitors training battles and full-time combat trainers who observe and control units during exercises.
On 16 September, in the final drama, soldiers assembled for roll call,
answering their name as called on the manifest. They were ready as the moment
came; busses pulled up and were loaded for the trip to the airfield, The time
for future memories had begun as a US Air Force C5A Galaxy, carrying the
advanced party of headquarters staff, left Fort Hood, Robert Gray Army
Airfield, heading to their rendezvous with destiny.
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